Wine A to N

Wine – Jargon, Language

This is a little wine dictionary, which should help you to identify and describe wine in a professional way. Professional tasters and well-informed wine enthusiasts sometimes use technical jargon when discussing wine. You will find the most commonly used terms in the list given below.

Acidic: Wine with a tart taste due to the presence of natural acids from the grape of fermentation process.

Acidity: Refers to the level of acid found in wine. Too little acid tends to make a wine bland, while too much can make it vinegary. Acidity is not to be confused with sourness, dryness, or astringency.

Aftertaste: The flavor that stays in the mouth after swallowing wine. Also known as a wine’s finish, this flavor can be buttery, oaky, spicy, tart, or bitter.

Age: The period of time that a wine spends maturing to achieve its best flavor and aroma. Wines are aged in a variety of ways from large casks (such as oak or stainless steel) to bottles. Complex wines tend to benefit from aging, whereas simple wines should be drunk when they are young.

Alcohol: A product of the fermentation of grapes that contributes to the taste of wine and acts as a preservative.

Almondy: Signifies the almondy taste that appears in young red wines made by carbonic maceration. This taste also reflect certain alterations such as excess oxidation in white wines, or the “taste” of light” in badly-stored sparkling wines.

Alsac: This area of France, known mostly for white wines, has over 90 picturesque villages. The wines are light to full-bodied with great varietal character. Alsac also produces wonderful late-harvest sweet wines. The area borders the Rhine north of Switzerland and extends about 70 miles along the lower slopes of Vosges Mountains from Strasbourg in the north past Colmar to Mulhouse.

Amarone: A strong, dry, long-lived red from Italy’s Veneto region, made from a blend of partially dried red grapes.

Amber-colored: A shade some white wines go after oxidation. Describing an old white wine which as acquired a golden colour like that of amber, due to the oxidation of its colouring matter; this colour is a defect in a young wine.

Amontillado: A style of Sherry from Spain. The wine is completely dry, it ages in barrels and is then fortified with brandy to a final alcohol level of 16%.

Aperitif: Any alcoholic beverage such as Champagne, Vermouth, or white wine that is taken before a meal as an “appetizer”.Appellation Controlee (AC): Apellation Controlee is a guarantee that a wine was produced in a specific location by a particular method with approved grape varieties and in controlled quantities. Quality is not guaranteed, but wines designated with the AC are usually of higher quality than those that are not.

Appearance: Indicates the colour.

Aroma: The smell of a young wine which may later develop into a mature bouquet in fine wines. The specific smell imparted by each variety of grape to the wine which is made from it; particularly evident in young wines, but tends to blur with age.

Astringency: A lip-puckering sensation caused by excess tannins, which may disappear as the wine ages.

Attack: The first impression a wine makes on the palate.

Bacchus: Another name for Dionysus, the Greek and Roman God of Wine.

Balance: Describing a wine whose characteristics are neither too weak nor too marked. The relationship among alcohol, sweetness. fruitness. acidity, and tannin food in a wine. Well-balanced wines have a pleasant proportion of all these elements. A wine’s balance may only be realized after some aging.

Banyuls: An unusual French wine commonly served with chocolate or dishes with a hint of sweetness. Made from late-harvest Grenache grapes, the wine must by law contains 15% alcohol. The steep hillside vineyards in the small village of Banyuls are above the Mediterranean at the southern limit of Roussilon.

Barbaresco: A respected red from Piedmont (Italy), lighter than Barolo, made from Nebbiolo grapes.

Bardolino: A light, red, slightly-sweet wine produced in the Veneto region of Northern Italy. Bardolino is best drunk when young.

Barolo: One of the most highly regarded Italian reds, made from Nebbiolo grapes grown in Piedmont. The wine is dark, full-bodied and high in tannin and alcohol; it can improve over decades of aging.

Barrel: A round container, generally made from wood. Barrels of all different sizes are used, depending on the wine region and producer. Oak barrels are commonly used to age wines.

Beerenauslese: A German word meaning “selected berry picking”. Beerenauslese is a sweet German white wine made from late harvested grapes. These wines are usually expensive and hard to find.

Big: Describes a wine with powerful flavor. (Tasting term)

Bitter: Rough and acid. A taste you get at the back of the tongue which should not be confused with the taste of tannins (Tasting term)

Blanc de Blancs: A white wine or champagne made from white grapes only.

Blanc de Noirs: A white wine or champagne produced from red grapes vinifiied without skin contact (the juice of most red grapes is colorless; all the coloring matter is found in the skins).

Blending: The primary task of the wine maker. Wines from different lots or barrels are blended together to produce the final product for bottling. Tradition and regional laws dictate what grape varieties may be blended together to make a certain wine. It is up to the wine maker to select the percentages of each type of grape for the final blend. The particular characteristics of the vintage play a crucial role in this decision. The classic blending example comes from Bordeaux, where by law wine can be made from a blend of the following grapes: Canernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbee, Petit Verdot, and Cabernet Franc.

Blush Wine: A pink wine produced from grape juice or must from which the grape skins have been removed before fermentation is complete.

Bocoy: A wooden container that’s larger than the casks and has a capacity of 700 liters.

Body: Generally used to describe the “weight” of a wine in the mouth. Wines can be categorized as light-, meidum-, and full-bodied. A Cabernet Sauvignon is an example of a full-bodied wine; a Sauvignon Blanc is a light- or medium-bodied wine.

Bodega: (Spain) (1) A winery (2) A wine cellar.

Bottle: Glass bottles are the most common containers for storing wines. Glass is ideal because it does not affect the wine in any way, even during extended periods in the bottle.

Bottle Aging: Process og aging in the bottle by which the wine consumes only the oxygen contained in the bottle, very slowly. This process helps refine the wine.

Bottle Sickness: A condition affecting wines immediately after bottling or shipment. The wine can taste flat or off, or small of sulfur dioxide. This condition will disappear in about two or three weeks if the wine is stored properly.

Botrytis cinerea (Noble rot): A mold that concentrates the sugar and flavor of grapes.

Bouquet: The sum of the various fragrances noted by small, created by the development of wine from the fermentation and aging process, whether in barrel or bottle.

Breathing: Exposing a wine to the air by uncorking the bottle before serving. Generally, red wines require more breathing time than whites, which sometimes require none. Sparkling wines, for instance, do not need to breathe.

Breed: Used for wines of high quality, with elegance and finesse.

Brilliant: Describes a wine that has a shining, clear, has a clean appearance, with luminous reflections.

Broad: Means a full-bodied, complex wine with plenty of subtleties.

Browning: Oxidised. When used of a white wine, the colour and smell are said to be reminiscent of Madeira.

Brunello Montalcino: The Brunello grape, grown in the town of Montaleino in southern Tuscany (Italy), produces full-bodied, rich, powerful, long-lived wines. By DOCG law, the wines must be aged in wood for three and a half years and be released not before their fourth year. Rosso di Montalcino, also produced from the Brunello grape, can be released after one year with no wood aging required.

Brut: This refers to the driest type of champagne or other sparkling wines. (very dry sparkling wine

Buttery: Describes a desirable aroma detectable in quality wines, especially if they have been made using the malolactic fermentation method.

Capsule: The protective metal or plastic sheath over the cork and neck of a wine bottle. The capsule keeps the cork from drying out and admitting air into the bottle.

Carafe: A glass container frequently used to serve house wine in restaurants.

Caramely: Used to describe wines that have been aged for a long time (reserva and gran reserva) and have a rich, burnt sugar flavor.

Carbonated Maceration: Special technique for fermenting red wines in which the whole grape undergoes enzymatic fermentation. It is used to obtain smooth, aromatic young wines.

Carbonated Wine: Sparkling wines of inferior quality that have been industrially injected with carbon dioxide.

Cask: Wooden cask used to age the wines. The Bordeaux cask (225 litres) is reowned for aging great table wines. It is made of oak staves held together with metal hoops, with two lids.

Cava: Spanish sparkling wine made using the Champagne method, undergoing its second fermentation in the bottle that’s sold to the public. This term in Spanish may also mean the cellars used for aging wines.

Cave: Some French wines are labeled “Mis en bouteilles dans nos caves”. This means “bottled” in our cellars’ but is no guaranteed of quality.

Cellar: A storage area for wine, not necessarily underground. A cellar is the best area to keep wines for aging. Ideal conditions are darkness, controlled cool temperature, and high humidity. Bottles should be stored on their sides to keep the corks from drying out.

Chacoli: A light, acidic wine made from grapes that never fully ripened. 9% vol. Basquen Country.

Chai: A French term for an aboveground structure used for wine storage and aging. Contrast with cellar. Popular in Bordeaux.

Champagne: Only 75 miles northeast of Paris, the region has over 300 villages and produces the best-known sparkling wines in the world. Only wines produced here can legally be called champagne.

Chaptalisation: The addition of sugar to the must to increase the final alcohol content of the wine.

Character: The combination of a wine’s features that make it distinguishable. Describes a wine whose qualities are very marked and easily recognisable.

Charmat Process: The process of producing sparkling wines in tanks rather than bottles. Often used to mass-produce inexpensive sparkling wines.

Chateau: Quality French Bordeaux wines are labeled “Mis en bouteille au chateau” This means that the wines are estate bottled by the proprietor and are considered to be of high quality.

Chateau Bottled: Indicates that a wine is bottled at the chateau whose name is on the label – a practice designed in France to combat fraud. In Bordeaux specifically, all quality wines are labeled this way; look for “Mis en Bouteille au Domaine” on the label of a Bordeaux. Today, it is not clear that chateau-bottled wines are superior to other wines.

Chenin Blanc: A very versatile white wine grape known in many areas of the world and called Steen in South Africa. It is the most famous white wine made in the Loire Valley of France. The grape is known for its high acidity and can be fermented dry or medium-sweet. The finest French Chenin Blancs can age for many years.

Chianti: A fruity, light ruby-to-garnet-colored red from Tuscany (Italy), formerly bottled in a characteristic straw-covered flask. When aged three years or more, it can be called Chianti

Chianti Classico: A DOC red from a designated inner portion of the Chianti wine district. TO be labeled Chianti Classico, both the vineyards and the winery must be within the delimited region.

Claret: Fruity, light red wine whose fermentation process includes very slight maceration of the grape skins. Drink young. It is also a British term for red Bordeaux wines.

Clean: A wine with no offensive odors or tastes. Healthy; straightforward.

Cloudy: A dull, hazy color in wine.

Cloying: Overly sweet, and lacking the correct amount of acidity to give the wine balance.

Coarse: Rough, inelegant texture.

Complex: A word used to describe the rich variety of bouquet and flavors in a fine wine.

Color: Color refers to the “look” of wine. That is, the actual color (red, yellow, brown etc.), its opacity(clear, cloudy), and other characteristics. If the color of a wine is wrong for that wine, it may be bad or not yet aged enough.

Complexity: The various fragrances noted by small, created by the development of wine from the fermentation and aging process, whether in barrel or bottle.

Constantia: A legendary sweet wine from South Africa, a favorite of Napolean. It comes from an estate called Groot Constantia, which is still in operation.

Constructed: Full-bodied and charnu.

Cork: The cork of the bottle.

Corkage: A fee paid to a restaurant by a customer who brings his own wine.

Corked: An expression meaning the wine has a smell or taste of cork. This defect, which is harmless but makes the wine unpleasant and gives it an unpleasant, musty, moldy smell imparted by a flawed cork. Cork can contain bacteria that will cause “off” flavors in the wine. Quality cork manufacturers bleach and process corks to minimize the chance of a bottle being “corked”. Unfortunately, almost one out of twelve bottles will have some off, corky flavors. It is for this reason that alternative wine bottle closures have been tested in recent years, but the use of non-cork closures has been resisted by traditionalists. Any closure that seals the bottle airtight is a perfect one for wine. Contrary to popular belief, cork does not – or should not – let air into a wine bottle over time. It is intended to create an airtight seal.

Corkscrew: A device used for removing the cork from glass bottles.

Corky: The odor and taste of cork that indicates deterioration of the wine.

Coupage: The adding of one wine to another to improve or enhance its qualities. It may be from the same or different years.

Crackling: Used to indicate a wine that is mildly sparkling.

Crisp: A wine with a good acid balance that is fresh and lively.

Crown: The shape made by the bubbles of a good sparkling wine or cava when they reach the top of the glass.

Cru: French word for “growth”. Superior growths are classified by several names including Grand Cru and Premier Cru.

Crushed Port: British term for Port blended from several vintages. Similar to the currently sold Late Bottled Vintage Port, except that crushed Port will age in the bottle, throwing a sediment, or crust, as it does so. Not currently produced.

Crusty: Said of an old red wine whose sediment has stuck to the inside of the bottle and which needs to be decanted.

Cryomaceration: A winemaking procedure used in making white wines that holds the skins and the crushed grapes at extremely low temperature prior to fermentation, enhancing the fruit and other flavors.

Cuvee: French for a lot of wine or a blend.

Decant: To gently pour a wine from one bottle to another so as not to disturb the sediment remaining in the bottom of the original bottle.

Delicate: A wine that is light of flavor, fine elegant and fragrance in body.

Demi-Sac: Champagne or other sparkling wines in their semi-sweet form.

Dessert Wines: The characteristic of a fine wine with several layers of flavor.

Developed: Wine that has undergone modifications over a period of time.

Distinguished: High class.

DOC (Denominazione Di Origine Controllata): Italy’s regulatory wine system, set up in 1963. The laws protect the quality of the wines by specifying geographical limits, grape varieties, alcohol levels, top yields per acre, and aging requirements for particular wines.

DOCG (Denominazione Di Origine Controllata E Garantita): The next step above DOC in Italy’s regulatory wine system. Represents the highest level of quality among Italian wines.

Dried: Describing a wine which has lost its freshness and fruit.

Dry: Wines are usually noted as dry, or sweet, with varieties in between. Dryness is a function of the residual sugar in the finished wine – the drier the wine, the less sugar it contains. Most table wines are dry. A French Chablis is less dry than most California Chardonnays, but both are considered to be dry. Used mainly to describe dry still white wines. A champagne described as “sec” is actually slightly sweet. (Tasting term)

Dubious: Cloudy

Dull: Lacking character.

Earthy: The taste that soil imparts to wine grapes and consequently to the wine.

Eiswein: A sweet German wine made from grapes harvested and crushed after they have frozen on the vine.

Elegant: Fine and high-class. A distinguished wine with good lineage, harmonious in color and aroma, balanced on the palate, with a good bouquet and the right period of aging.(Tasting term)

Enology: The study of wine and wine making. Also spelled Oenology.

Envero: Time of the year when the grape begin to acquire color.

Extra dry: Very dry (describing champagne).

Fat: Charnu, mellow, and supple.

Fermentation: The process that occurs when yeast changes the sugar in grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Finesse: A French term used to refer to the “fireness” of exceptionally elegant wines.

Fining: The process of clarifying wine by introducing certain addictives that cling to suspend particles in the wine and fall to the bottom. In Bordeaux, egg whites are commonly used.

Finish: The tactile and flavor impressions left in the mouth while a beverage is being swallowed. Some beverages finish harsh, hot, and astringent, while others are smooth, soft, and elegant.

Fine: Distinguished; most AOC (appellation d’origine) wines should be fin.

Fino: A style of Sherry that is pale in color, light in flavor, and dry. Fino is served cold as a refreshing aperitif.

Filtering: Elimination of the deposits formed in a sparkling wine during its second fermentation in the bottle.

Flat: Oxidised, generally because of either aeration during bottling or being too marked. (when describing a sparkling wine) no longer sparkling; (when describing a still wine) uninteresting.

Fleshy: Used to describe full, oily, rich wines of substance which gives the impression of filling the mouthand a thick body on the palate.

Flinty: A hard, stony taste in wine. A “flinty” wine is said to recall gunflint. Wines from the Chablis and Sancerre appellations in France have always been associated with a flinty smell and taste due to the calcareous soil. Flinty wines are usually dry and austere.

Floral: A term describing the pleasant aroma, reminiscent of the perfume of some flowers, like roses, jasmine, violet, honeysuckle etc., which some wines have.

Flowery: The subtle taste and aroma of blossoms found in a wine. Not to be confused with sweetness.

Flowing: Fresh, pleasant to drink.

Fortified: Wines that are made stronger by adding brandy.

Foxy: The wild taste found in some North American grape varieties.

Fizzante: An Italian word meaning semi-sparkling wines.

Fragrant: A fragrant wine is very aromatic and flowery. Common wine fragrances are floral, spice, and fruit aromas such as pineapple, blackberry, peach, apricot, and apple. The variety of the grape is primarily responsible for a wine’s fruit fragrances.

Frais: The instruction “servir frais” means serve cool.

Frascati: A fruity, golden white wine from the hills around Rome; can be dry or sweet.

Fresh: A white or rose wine fruity wine with a good balance between alcohol and acidity. May also be applied to claret or young red wines.

Fruit Wines: Made by the fermentation of fruits other than grapes, include cider and perry, but not beer or sake, since they derive heir fermentation sugars from hydrolyzed starch. Very few fruit wines improve with bottle age in the way of which fine grape wine is capable. Characteristic fruit flavors fade very quickly and most are best consumed well within a year of bottling.

Fruity: Said of wines that have fruit aromas (anything from apples to blackberries, or even cooked fruit).

Full-bodied: Seemingly rich, well-coloured, rounded, ample and of marked character. A term relating to the body or mouth-filling capacity of a wine. Additionally, it applies to wines that are robust, intensively flavored, and comparatively high in sugar, or alcohol content.

Garrafeira: Portuguese for wine cellar. On a wine label, the term refers to a wine from Portugal that has been aged for at least two years in wood and for an additional year in the bottle. Garrafeira include some of the best Portuguese wines. This term does not apply to Port.Gattinara: A Piedmontese red made from Nebbiolo blended with other grapes. A powerful, long-lived wine, though less so than Barolo.

Generic Wines: Wines made from a variety of grapes and that do not use the varietal grape names. The most common generic wines are the red and white “jug” wines.

Generoso: Special wine with an alcoholic content between 17 and 23 degrees. By extension, this term is also applied to high alcohol table wines.

Generous: Full-bodied, rich in alcohol.

Grape Type: The type of grape from the vitus vinefera group will have a large impact on the quality and taste of the wine.

Gran Reserva: Name given to wines which have been aged for a long time in oak barrels and the bottle. Though the classification varies from one region to another, the Gran Reserva labels means a wine has had at least three years’ aging.

Grappa: An Italian spirit distilled from pumice. Dry and high in alcohol, it is typically consumed after dinner.

Green: Term used to describe a young wine that has not developed enough to balance out its acidity.

Hard: A wine that has not aged enough to achieve a proper balance; or lacking charm, through excessive tannin or acidity: this defect sometimes disappears as the wine matures.

Harvest: Harvesting of the grapes.

Healthy: Clean-tasting; in good condition

Heavy: Dull; undistinguished.

Hectare: A metric unit of measure equivalent to 2.471 acres. Wineries in Europe use this term to describe the land area of vineyards. Output of wine is measured in hectoliters per acre. A hectoliter is equal to 100 liters or 26.4 US gallons.

Herbaceous: Wine that has the flavor and aroma of herbs. Can also be found in very young wines that will change flavor as they age. Primarily a function of the grape variety, not soil or climate.

Hock:British term for German wines of the Rhine. The term comes from the town of Hochheim in the Rhine Valley.

House: A term used for producers of Champagne.

Hybrid: Grapes that are bred from more than one grape variety. This breeding may improve the flavor or hardiness of the wine.

Iodized: Aroma and taste of iodine found in some of the wines produced near the sea. e.g. at Jerez or Sanl.

Jug Wines: Simple, everyday wines that were originally bottled in jugs. In America, jug wines are usually inexpensive and come in larger sized bottles.

Kabinett: Light, German white wines made without additional sugar that are relatively low in alcohol content.

Kellerab Fullung: German term for “estate bottled”. Also known as Original-Abfullung.Kir: A glass of dry white wine produces this lovely blend. To make Kir Royal, replace still white wine with champagne or sparkling wines.

Kosher Wine: A wine traditionally made from Concord grapes and, by Jewish law, under the supervision of a rabbi.

Lacrima Christi: A lovely white wine (even if some red is also produced) derived from grapes grown on the volcanic slopes of Mount Vesuvius, an active volcano in Southwest Italy near Naples. The name means “Tears of Christ”.

Lambrusco: A fizzy, usually red, dry to sweet wine from northern Italy, made from grape of the same name.

Late Harvest: Wines made from grapes that are picked very ripe and affected by Botrytis cinerea (noble rot). Late harvest wines are very sweet and are usually served as dessert wines.

Lean: Insufficiently fruity; lacking agreeable character.

Leather: Noble aroma of some red wines thanks to their reducing aging in the bottle.

Lees: dregs or sediments that settles at the bottom of a container.

Legs: Streams that run down the sides of a glass indicating a rich, full-bodied wine.

Liebfraumilch: A blended German white, semisweet and fairly neutral, which accounts for up to 50% of all German wine exports.

Light: A term used to describe the body or color of a wine. A light wine is usually easy to drink and not high in alcohol. Muscadet is a light white wine. Beaujolais is an example of a light red wine.

Limousin: An old province and a large forest in France near the town of Limoges. The major source of French oak for wine barrels.

Liqueur: A sweet, alcoholic after-dinner drink, also known as a cordial.

Liqueur-like: Sweet, usually in relation to white wine.

Lively: A wine with high acidity and a crisp, fresh flavor. This term is also used for sparkling wines with a pleasant bubble.

Maceration: The soaking, for a greater or lesser period, of the grape skins in the must which is fermenting.

Macroclimate: A term of climate scale. Also called Regional Climate, it broadly represent an area or a region on a scale of tens to hundreds of kilometers.

Madeira: A process in which white wines become flat and dark due to excessive aging or poor storage. The term is derived from Madeira wine which is dark.

Maderization: A rich, white fortified wine resembling Sherry originally produced on the Portuguese island off the coast of west Africa of the same name. The more important varieties of Madeira are Serial, Rainwater, Boal (or Bual), and Malmsey. The latter is often touted as an aphrodisiac.

Madre: Sediment or leas left at the bottom of the barrel. Wine that has been concentrated by boiling and is added to poor wines to give them more body.

Magnum: A bottle containing twice the normal amount of 75cl.

Manzanilla: A generoso (high-alcohol) fino wine.

Marc: Residue left after the pressing of the grapes. After the wine has been taken from the press, the marc can be used in its distillation or for making the eau-de-vie “Orujo”.

Marrying: The blending of two or more wines in a cask in order to yield a wine with more desirable characteristics.

Marsala: Italy’s most famous fortified wine is produced on the Island of Sicily and usually contains about 17% to 20% alcohol. The better Marsalas such as Marsala Superiori and Marsala Vergini (or Solera are comparable to Sherry.

Marsanne: Traditionally a French white wine grape blended with another white grape, Roussane.Master of Wine: A title bestowed by the Institute of Masters of Wine. Founded in 1953 in England, it is an exclusive organization requiring one to pass a rigorous three-day exam. A person with this title may put the abbreviation M. W. after his or her name.

Maturity: The stage in the aging of wines when they have developed all of their characteristic qualities to full perfection.

Mead: A wine, common in medieval Europe, made by fermenting honey and water. Recently mead has enjoyed new popuularity. Wine makers now makeflavored mead.

Meduim-Bodied: A wine whose weight and texture on the tongue fall between light and full-bodied.

Mellow: Sweetish: usually describing white wines.

Mesoclimate: A term of climate scale that is intermediate between regional climate (Macroclimate) and the very small scale (Microclimate).

Microclimate: A term of climate scale. The climate within a small, defined area. Can dramatically affect the character of the wine produced there.

Minty: Desirable aroma in some aged red wines.Mise en bouteille aau domaine: French term for a wine produced and bottled at the property where the grapes are grown.

Minute bubbles: A wine that forms miute bubbles is giving off a very slight amount of carbonic acid gas, which creates a sensation of tingling in the mouth.

Mistella: Mixture of wine alcohol and must.

Monopole: A label used on some French wines to indicate sole ownership, or monopoly, of the wine’s name. Not an official indicator of quality.

Mousseux: French for Sparkling.Mulled Wine: Red wine that has been mixed with sugar, lemon, and spices, usually including cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg. Served hot.

Mouth-filling: Easily drunk; “moreish”: sometimes describes a light wine that is served chilled.

Muscadet: A dry, low-alcohol white wine from Brittany in northwestern France. Usually drunk young, typically with seafood.

Must: A mixture of grape juice, stem fragments, grape skins, seeds and pulp prior to fermentation

Naturwein: German term for wines made without the addition of sugar.

Negociant: A shipper or dealer.

Nerveux: Vigorous, sinewy: describing a wine of definite character and style.

New: Young: the term is often used nowadays for wines made to e drinkable without ageing.

Non-Vintage Champagne: A Champagne containing the juice for grapes of different years.

Nose: A term used by wine enthusiasts to describe the smell of a wine.

Nusery: Barrels in which the wines (Sherry) are aged, using the soleras system. The criaderas are arranged in different levels, piled up on top of the last row of the soleras (the oldest level).